Photobooth at OSU dinner party

Blog 3: BOOM BOOM Booth


1. Design a web site about something that you like. Describe exactly who the anticipated audience is, and how the particular characteristics of this audience will affect the design and implementation of your web site. 

A little background of my business

My partner and I have been operating Ool Photo for a couple of years from Singapore to Brisbane. Ool Photo is a photography business that has its primary focus mainly on weddings and events. In every event that we have attended, we realised that there is a big shift in focus from photographing the leading “actors and actresses” with passive audiences watching, to the audiences actively participating in the celebration itself. That’s when live photography and photobooths started springing up. It becomes mandatory that every bride would love to hire a good photographer to capture the happiest days of their lives, and also a photobooth of some sort to entice their loved ones to share the joy with them. This definitely make weddings and other events more enjoyable for both groups of people.

Our first photobooth was actually held in my house. I was organizing a Chinese New Year (CNY) celebration during my summer holidays before my new semester started in March this year. I was just casually suggesting this idea to my friends who are in the same age group as me (between 20-30), and to my surprise, they’re more excited than I am. We did some quick research on photobooth props and backgrounds and we started cutting shiny sheets of paper. Since the theme is Chinese New Year, we decided to cut out pineapples and some Chinesey banners that you guys can’t really read, and of course the standard props like the spectacles and the hat. Red and gold is the theme since they’re extremely auspicious and bring us prosperity (that’s what the elders said).

We have a very receptive response, though we realised that there’s some people who do not really like to be photographed and was trying to escape from there!

CNY celebration

Celebrating our Chinese New Year with steamboat and photobooth!

We next held our photobooth during a lavish dinner party organised by the Overseas Singaporean Unit in Brisbane. Due to our innovative and overwhelming response during our private CNY party, one of my friends suggested to our Singapore Student Association (SSA, a student club for us) to let us hold this booth to bring up the mood (You do know events like this may be boring sometimes and the audiences can sneak out for some shots). Indeed, there were many crazy Singaporeans vying for the booth and taking some really hilarious photos of themselves (and the photographer). The age group is generally between 18 to 30 odd.

Photobooth at OSU dinner party

Crazy Singaporeans enjoying their time at the booth!

Photobooth at OSU dinner party

One shot isn’t enough. Another shot!

Photobooth at OSU dinner party

I’m sorry if you can’t read those English signboards. Or maybe they appear to be English

We also have this client who wants to have a photobooth for their kid’s birthday.

Kid's birthday

Even kids know how to act cool

Target audience

After holding some photobooths and experiencing the pros and cons, we decided to be serious and make this into the next big thing. Based on our experiences and those of our competitors, we have classified our target audience to be in these groups.

  • Wedding couples
  • Birthdays (kids, teenagers, adults)
  • The event planners
  • Corporate events

The age group that we’re looking at is between 20-40 years old because these people fall under the working adult section (having a disposable income to pay for extra services).We’re looking more at females as females are more excited about photos and keeping fond memories. Most of the time, the brides will be taking care of the photos rather than the groom. These people are also at a marriageable age, or they might already be parents and their kids are big enough to take part in birthday parties. There may be corporations that want to make their events more happening. And also event planners who want to engage various services. Currently, we’re looking at both the Brisbane and the Singapore market.

Our objectives

Instead of being ANOTHER photobooth, we strive to be a little different. From our market research, we found out that many photobooths are manned by not-so-exciting-and-lovable photographers or self-operated photobooths with cookie-cutter props. Hence, we decided to DIY our own props or source for interesting and unconventional props which will make a huge difference to our competitors. We will also come up with unconventional themes and exotic backgrounds that fit different events. We can produce studio quality, vintage and glamorous look, provide unparalleled customer service, and yet still affordable for our mid-income clients. Our only aim is to make the event fun and unforgettable. What we are selling is not only the photos, but also the experience with the photographer.

Our competitors

One Eye Click Live

Mid quality, expensiveOne Click Eye Live

Seven Ink

Low quality, cheap

7 ink


Epic Exposure Photobooths

Self-operated, cheap

Epic Exposure Booths

Joe Elario Photography

High end, expensive

 John Elario Photography


Our identity and image

We want to show our target audience that we’re fun, funny, creative and quirky. We want to attract people who are fun-loving, daring and love taking photos. We decided to use T-rex as our logo (since dinosaurs are our favourite animal) and call it BOOM BOOM Booth. My photographer loves to say “3-2-1-BOOM”, and hence the inspiration for the name. Our slogan will be “We will rock you”. And therefore, our website should be nothing too serious, have a few illustrations of the adorable dinosaur, an easy to navigate website which shows links to photo albums, contact details and about us, and most importantly, it must exude a feeling of fun and enjoyable.

2. Construct blueprint diagrams illustrating the structure by which a user will interact with your web site’s components.

BOOM BOOM Booth sitemap

A sitemap of how BOOM BOOM Booth is like

3. Create a series of low/medium fidelity wireframes for the main pages of the web site.

Home page

Home page

Since our website is all about photos and fun, we have to set the mood in the home page. The photos have to be engaging in order to lure potential customers to continue navigating the site. In order to minimise visual disruptions, I’ve placed the logo on one side and a menu icon on the right, whereby the menu will slide in when the icon is clicked. This saves quite a lot of clutter from the home screen.

Home page menu slide in

Home page menu slide in

A neat way of displaying the global navigation menu which involves links to main pages and the search navigation.

Gallery page - by date

Gallery page – by date

Putting photos into albums make things more organised and easy to browse. These albums are sorted in various ways: Title, Date, Location and Category type. There’s a local search navigation that searches for albums only.

Gallery page - by title

Gallery page – by title

Gallery page - by location

Gallery page – by location

Gallery page - search gallery

Gallery page – search gallery

Album photo gallery

Album photo gallery

Clicking into the album brings users to a photo slideshow where users can have a general browse through specific events. There’s also a local navigation system that brings users between albums.

4. Design a metadata matrix that presents the vocabulary terms and relationships. You need only present accepted and variant terms in an accompanying controlled vocabulary database.

Metadata Matrix

Vocabulary Description Examples Maintenance
Photo Booth A small partitioned enclosure for photographing Mobile photobooth, DIY photobooth Moderate
Gallery A place to view photos Web gallery, online gallery Easy
Album A collection of photos Photo album Easy
Prop An object used in posing for photos Hats, moustache, crown, lips High
Backdrop A setting for the photobooth Wall patterns, curtains, barricades High
Slideshow A series of photo slides Photo gallery Easy
Printing A production of photographs Photo printing Moderate
Blog A weblog Blogging of recent events Moderate
Portfolio A collection of best photography works Photography portfolio Easy
Category Classifying albums into different genres Birthday, Wedding, Event Easy
Sort Sort albums chronologically, geographically or alphabetically Sort by date, location or title Easy
Services Photobooth and photo printing services Setting photobooths during events, printing photos Moderate
FAQ A list of questions that clients usually ask How much, What props do you have High
Archives A backlog of all blog posts Joshua’s 9th Birthday Moderate
About About our company How our photobooth comes about Moderate
Contact Call/Email Photobooth hire enquiry, rates, availability Moderate

Controlled Vocabulary

Accepted terms Variant terms
Prop Props, moustache, beard, crown
Photo Booth Photobooth, photobox
Backdrop Background, wallpaper
Gallery Photo gallery, album gallery
FAQ Frequently Asked Questions

As photography has become so prevalent these days, many people are familiar with photography terms. Photography is also a trend, and whenever new trend comes in, the general crowd will pick up these terms fast. Words like photobooth, props and backdrops are nothing new. They have simply been placed in the context of photography. I find it a little tough to come up with variant terms because these words are already in its simplest and can hardly be replaced with other terms. As my clients will mostly be the younger generation (between 18-40), they will be familiar with these terms and the hype, and it should not pose them any problems trying to understand what we do before booking a service with us.


Blog 2: Role of Information Architect, Labelling Systems and Navigation Systems


1. Define what Information Architecture is, and describe what role an Information Architect plays in the development of a web site. Be sure to use images if possible and provide references to the literature. (Minimum of 500 words.)

Define IA

Information Architecture can be defined as:

  • The structural design of shared information environments.
  • The combination of organization, labeling, search, and navigation systems within web sites and intranets.
  • The art and science of shaping information products and experiences to support usability and findability.
  • An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.

The diagram below explains very simply what Information Architecture is and how it connects people to the content.

explaining the meaning of ia

Explaining the meaning of IA

Role of Information Architects

Information Architects are generally the “master planner” of websites. They define what the site will actually be and how they will work. According to Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, an Information Architect

  • Clarifies the mission and vision for the site, balancing the needs of its sponsoring organization and the needs of its audiences.
  • Determines what content and functionality the site will contain.
  • Specifies how users will find information in the site by defining its organization, navigation, labeling, and searching systems.
  • Maps out how the site will accommodate change and growth over time.
role of information architect

Role of Information Architect

Information Architects do not work alone. They have to work with other people such as the web designer, UX designer and the UI designer to plan the layout and structure of the website. Sometimes, they have to assume more than 1 role. Like a building architect, the Information Architect needs to define a strong infrastructure for the website to house the content so that users are able to navigate their way through and find what they need. They have to develop content categorisation schemes, consistent site terminology, content structure across the site and site architecture diagrams. And therefore, Information Architects are normally involved very early in the design process.

A good Information Architecture is one that is not obvious in a website. They are normally invisible to users. However, if the Information Architecture is badly structured, it will become very obvious to users and they will start complaining about issues such as difficulty in navigating from page to page, unable to look for the answers that they need, and so on. It is just like the supermarket featured below. There are no proper labelling of the items and it becomes time consuming looking for something that you need, like a tray of eggs. Since Information Architecture cannot be seen, it is very difficult to judge how good the IA is. Some people will even doubt the need to hire an Information Architect.

bad IA

An example how bad Information Architecture looks like. It’s like a supermarket without proper labelling for its items.

Nevertheless, Information Architecture is very important in every website. Without IA, you will not be able to imagine how much time, money and effort will be wasted on your website. Rosenfeld and Morville have provided some reasons for the importance of effective information architecture:

  • The cost of finding information
  • The cost of not finding information
  • The cost of construction
  • The cost of maintenance
  • The cost of training

Let’s take the second point as an example. What are the consequences if your users cannot find information in your website? Imagine the frustration caused to your clients trying to find out how to purchase a product from your e-commerce site. You will lose a customer. Not only that, your customer may send a feedback to you about the inconveniences caused to him. Since you would not want to lose any more potential customers, you will look for your web developer to work on the problem. More money will be spent for your web developer to rectify the problem, and during the meantime, you will still be losing customers until the maintenance is completed. This process is not efficient at all.

2. Take a screen capture of the main page of web site of your own choice and post it on your blog.

sean wes handlettering

Sean Wes Handlettering

a) Create a table describing the navigational labels.

Label Destination’s heading label Destination’s <TITLE> label
Top-of-page navigation system labels
About About About
Contact Contact Contact
Login Login form Login
Lettering Hand lettering resources & education Lettering
Business Make a living with your passion Business
Body navigation system labels
Get my book for free
Hand lettering classes Make a living as a hand lettering artist Learn lettering
Podcast Seanwes podcast Seanwes podcast
Community The community Community
Lettering blog Blog Lettering
Business blog Blog Business
Store store Seanwes store
Bottom-of-page navigation labels
Learn lettering Make a living as a hand lettering artist Learn lettering
Gallery Gallery Gallery
Resources Resources Hand lettering pens, pencils and brushes
Blog Blog Lettering
Store Store Seanwes store
Community The community Community
Blog Blog Business
Podcast Seanwes podcast Seanwes podcast
Books Pursue your passion full-time The overlap technique
Resources Resources Resources
About About About
Contact Contact Contact
Login Login form Login
Get my free book

b) Describe what labels you do not like and why, and suggest improvements.

This website is very short and sweet with a very clear labelling throughout the whole site. There isn’t much to pick on. What could have improved will be his primary navigation. I suppose seeing the ‘business’ label might look a little weird to you who don’t know about Sean Wes at all. I knew about him when I was searching online to learn how to do hand lettering and I found him (he has the best SEO when I looked for the keyword ‘hand lettering tutorials’). Even before his website was published, he had made plenty of promotional videos to keep in touch with us and to tell us about his plans after he had his website up. Therefore, I already have some clue what he meant by that. Nevertheless, I was still confused what that label was at first till I click in to see.

seanwes primary navigation

Seanwes Primary Navigation

I can see that he’s trying to keep his labels very short and neat, using only 1 word for every label. It’s very consistent – ‘about’, ‘contact’, ‘login’, ‘lettering’, ‘business’. He’s actually trying to make a distinct 2-part website with lettering and business as the main focus.Only after clicking into ‘lettering’ or ‘business’ will you see the secondary navigation which gives a clearer idea about his main topic.

seanwes lettering subsite secondary navigation

seanwes lettering subsite secondary navigation

seanwes lettering business subsite secondary navigation

seanwes lettering business subsite secondary navigation

Instead of putting these 2 labels side by side, he could possibly use the secondary navigation of lettering (‘learn lettering’, ‘gallery’, ‘resources’, ‘blog’, ‘store’) to be his primary navigation, and put business either at the far end of the primary navigation, or in the footer. I’m suggesting this because I felt that the business label should be his side topic instead of his main topic, since I come to this side to find out more about how to do hand lettering and not to do a business with hand lettering. Of course, there might be other ways to argue about this.

c) Describe whether there are any inconsistencies in the labelling system between the pages.


There’s a consistent style throughout. The labels are all in lower case, that’s similar to the logo.


The home page is in monochrome and thus the colours for the labels are in black, white and grey only. The same typeface, ‘lemonde-courrier’, is used for all the labels, in fact, for the whole website (I don’t really like that, it shows no distinction between the labels and the rest of the page). The headings are in sentence case and bold to show sections within the page.

The presentation remains consistent throughout the pages, except that for the ‘lettering’ page, the main colour is green, while the ‘business’ page is blue. This is also reflected in the footer whereby the ‘lettering’ and ‘business’ headings are underlined by the respective colours.

seanwes footer

seanwes footer with coloured labellings

There’s a very distinctive difference in the font sizes for the ‘about’, contact’ and ‘login’ compared to the ‘lettering’ and ‘business’, also for the headings within the body.


All the labels are noun-based.


The labels are equal in their specificity


The labels are comprehensive


Very simple usage of nouns for the labels, easy to understand for any kind of audience.

d) Describe what type of navigation is used?

An embedded navigation system is used. This website consists of the global and contextual navigation system on the main page. The local navigation system can only be seen after you click into either ‘lettering’ or ‘business’. These navigation systems are integrated within the web pages. They are wrapped around and infused within the content of the site. They provide both context and flexibility, helping users understand where they are and where they can go.

seanwes primary navigation

Seanwes Primary Navigation

The global navigation system in this website is referring to these labels: ‘about’, ‘contact’, ‘login’, ‘lettering’ and ‘business’. The logo found together with these labels links back to the home page. They are present on every page throughout the site, usually on the top of the website. They are the only consistent navigation in the site and serves as an indication telling where you are right now.

seanwes lettering subsite secondary navigation

seanwes lettering subsite secondary navigation

The local navigation system is embedded within the subsites ‘lettering’ and ‘business’. It forms a horizontal line just beneath the primary navigation and the selected label will be indicated by a different colour (grey against the other black labels). The local navigation of ‘lettering’ is very different to those of ‘business’.

contextual navigation

Contextual Navigation

The contextual navigation system lives within the body of the website. Some of these are ‘hand lettering classes’, ‘lettering blog’ and ‘listen resources’. Contextual navigation supports associative learning. It allows you to create a web of connective tissue that benefits users and the organisation.

e) Describe what type of search system is used?

The search system used is ‘Index by Topic’. Seanwes is a very simple website. It’s not like Griffith Uni where there is a large volume of content and various target audiences. The search bar located at the bottom of the page allows users to key in any keywords that matches the words in any of his posts or pages. For eg, I want to search for the keyword ‘typography’. I put in this keyword and the website simply searches for those articles with the keyword ‘typography’ in it.

3. Examine at least two other similar or competing web sites and undertake the following tasks:
a) Provide screen shots of these competing web sites.

the australian graphic supply co

The Australian Graphic Supply Co

hand lettering tutorial

Hand Lettering Tutorial

b) Describe how similar the labelling systems are?


Consistent usage of punctuation and case.

the hand lettering tutorial — primary navigation system

The Hand Lettering Tutorial — Primary Navigation System

the agsc — primary navigation system

The AGSC — Primary Navigation System


Consistent application of fonts, font sizes, colours, whitespace, and grouping.


Consistent noun-based labels for primary navigation systems.


The labels are equal in specificity.


The labels are comprehensive.


Usage of terms is consistent with the audience.
c) State whether you think any particular site is clearly the winner (and if so, why)?

I think that Seanwes is the winner. Simply because I always know where I am in the site. Seanwes shows where I am by indicating a different colour for the label. It even indicated that I’m in the ‘lettering’ subsite with a green background for the primary navigation, making it hard to miss. But comparing to Hand Lettering Tutorial and The AGSC, both of them do not show distinction in their labelling though they have indicated the current location through the page heading and the <TITLE>.



Morville, P & Rosenfeld, L 2007, Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, Third Edition, O’Reilly.

Blog 1: Information seeking, Classification and Organisation


1. Use the pearl growing method for information seeking to search for information about “Electronic Record and Documents Management” and “Digital Asset Management”. 

a) Describe what you found/learnt about “Electronic Record and Documents Management” and “Digital Asset Management”.

Electronic Document and Record Management System, which is abbreviated as EDRMS, is a form of content management system that holds all online or offline documents and records within the system as digital documents. With this integrated system, organisations will be able to easily manage their documents and records till the end of the document life-cycle.

Digital Asset Management (DAM) basically refers to the management of digital assets. Digital assets are generally images, graphics, logos, animations, audio and video clips, and any other useful digital files. Digital files are termed as assets only when ‘its environment contains additional information outside of the file’. In short, “it is any form of media that has been converted into an electronic (binary) format that has a ‘value’ to a company”. There exists many companies that offer DAM to users, such as Adobe.

Comparing the definitions of these two content management systems, it seems that they both possess similar functionalities. However, DAM is more likely a subset of EDRMS, whereby it only manages digital media, while EDRMS manages everything under the sun, from paper to digital.

The benefits associated with EDRMS are also quite different from that of DAM. For example, EDRMS helps to ‘remove paper from the records management cycle’ and ‘eliminate redundant and duplication of paper’, as nowadays, organisations are moving towards a paperless working environment. Whereas, DAM targets mostly at individuals such as photographers. They promote this system as helping creative individuals to be time-efficient and create a proper filing system for their photos.

b) Describe your experience with using the pearl growing method and the processes you undertook.

As a habit, when I want to find out more information about a certain topic, I’ll always use Google as my preferred search engine and input the exact keyword. In this case, it’s ‘Electronic Record and Document Management System’. When the search results are out, I realized that there’s actually an abbreviation for it. Also, it seems like it’s a standard to call it ‘Electronic Document and Record Management System’ rather than the other way around. However, the meaning of the term did not change so it didn’t really matter to me. I always start with reading the Wikipedia since it is able to give me a general idea of what I’m going to expect since I’m totally new to this term. After getting a rough idea, I proceed to read the next few links, I read the short metadata description below, and the kind of information I get is who uses EDRMS, why they use it, what benefits they can get from it. And of course, the different kinds of softwares that are available that can cater to large organisations.

When I have reached the bottom of the page, there are the related searches and page numbers. Since I felt that the information is kind of similar, I decided to deviate a little by looking at other searches related to my current search.

Likewise for DAM, I executed a similar approach to learn more about the content management system and made a comparison between the both of them as I’m curious whether they are similar systems catering to similar target audiences or something different.

2. Arrange the following list in alphabetical order then answer the questions below. You should look to the literature and existing theory to justify your answers.

  • El Paso, Texas
  • Saint Nicholas, Belgium
  • The Lord of the Rings
  • Newark, New Jersey
  • XVIIme siècle
  • .38 Special
  • 1001 Arabian Nights
  • The 1-2-3 of Magic
  • Albany, New York
  • #!%&: Creating Comic Books
  • St. Louis, Missouri
  • The Hague, Netherlands
  • $35 a Day Through Europe
  • H20: The Beauty of Water
  • Plzen, Czech Republic
  • New York, New York

Arranged in alphabetical order:

  • #!%&: Creating Comic Books
  • $35 a Day Through Europe
  • .38 Special
  • The 1-2-3 of Magic
  • 1001 Arabian Nights
  • XVIIme siècle
  • Albany, New York
  • El Paso, Texas
  • H20: The Beauty of Water
  • The Lord of the Rings
  • New York, New York
  • Newark, New Jersey
  • Plzen, Czech Republic
  • Saint Nicholas, Belgium
  • St. Louis, Missouri
  • The Hague, Netherlands

a) Did you put ‘The Hague’ under T or H? Why?

T, because initial articles in place names are generally retained (The Hague is the seat of government in Netherlands).

b) Did you put ‘El Paso’ under E or P? Why?

E, because my readers are English-speaking, they might not know that ‘El’ means ‘The’ in Spanish. They are likely to think of these titles with the articles, therefore it is acceptable to alphabetise under the article.

c) Which came first in your list, ‘Newark’ or ‘New York’? Why?

New York, because the space takes on a higher precedence than symbols, numbers or letters.

d) Does ‘St. Louis’ come before or after ‘Saint Nicholas’? Why?

It depends. There’s 2 ways of sorting these: word-by-word or letter-by-letter. If you’re sorting word-by-word, St. Louis will come before Saint Nicholas. If you’re sorting letter-by-letter, then Saint Nicholas will come before St. Louis. St. is technically only an abbreviation of Saint. Users tend to sort via word-by-word because it keeps headings with the same word or phrase together. However, in the Chicago Manual or other style guides, letter-by-letter is the preferred system as people are already familiar with it because this system is used in most dictionaries and encyclopaedias. In my case, I’m sorting word-by-word.

e) How did you handle numbers, punctuation, and special characters?

I refer to the ASCII code. Punctuation comes first, followed by numbers then special characters. In this case, ‘#’ comes before ‘$’ and ‘$’ comes before ‘.’, and that’s how I derived the order. And also, “The 1-2-3 of Magic” comes before ‘1001 Arabian Nights’ because ‘-‘, which is a punctuation, has a higher precedence than numbers, in this case ‘0’.


Demonstrate the order of precedence in ASCII Code

f) Assuming the italicised terms are book titles, what might be a more useful way to organise this list?

If they are book titles, we can organise them according to the Dewey Decimal System. “#!%&: Creating Comic Books” is most likely a non-fiction book falling under 740 Drawing and “H20: The Beauty of Water” may fall under 610 Medical Science. These books will be further classified into more specific categories and also by authors.

g) If the cities represent places you’ve visited and the book titles are ones you’ve read, how could chronology be used to order the list in a more meaningful way?

I would sort them chronologically (year, month, date) from the latest to the oldest, then by the titles alphabetically if they happened to be read on the same date.

Eg 1:

  • 2014-08-13     Newark, New Jersey
  • 2014-07-22     Albany, New York
  • 2014-07-13     The Hague, Netherlands
  • 2014-06-03     Plzen, Czech Republic
  • 2014-06-03     St. Louis, Missouri
  • 2014-06-02     Saint Nicholas, Belgium
  • 2014-04-11     New York, New York
  • 2014-03-12     El Paso, Texas

Also, I can first group these countries geographically into US and Europe and work out the chronology.

Eg 2:


  • 2014-08-13     Newark, New Jersey
  • 2014-07-22     Albany, New York
  • 2014-04-11     New York, New York
  • 2014-03-12     El Paso, Texas


  • 2014-07-13     The Hague, Netherlands
  • 2014-06-03     Plzen, Czech Republic
  • 2014-06-03     St. Louis, Missouri
  • 2014-06-02     Saint Nicholas, Belgium

Eg 2 will be a better way of representing since I’ll know which countries in US or Europe have I conquered.

3. Seek out and provide screen shots of web sites that are examples for each of the following organisation schemes:

a) Topic/Subject

smashing magazine

This demonstrates a topic-oriented website by classifying web design topics into coding, design, mobile, graphics, etc.

Smashing Magazine is basically a magazine that discusses about anything web and design related. They have a wealth of information and it’s important to categorise them according to topics so that readers can access the information easily.

b) Task

marcella custom

This demonstrates the involvement of users to follow a set of tasks to do something, in this case, customising a shirt

Marcella Custom organises its content into a collection of tasks. The designer designed the website in a way that the users can choose to customise the looks of the shirt via patterns, collars, sleeves and buttons.

c) Audience

griffith university home page

Using Griffith Uni’s home page as an example of how students navigate through the website to look for their course resources. This demonstrates an audience-oriented website.

Griffith University has defined 6 types of audiences who will visit their sites — future students, current students, international students, staff, research and alumni. Each section in the menu leads to a smaller, audience-specific mini-site that presents only information that is of particular interest to that segment of audience.

d) Metaphor

vintage patisserie

Vintage Patisserie is a metaphoric website. They made use of all those vintage illustrated elements such as the 70s lady, the rabbit and the fireplace to portray a vintage feel

The use of the 70s lady, the rabbit, brick-wall fireplace, the vintage suitcases and telephone helps us to understand the new by relating it to the familiar.

e) Hybrid


Facebook as a hybrid organisation scheme

Facebook looks very complex as it consists of many organisation schemes put together. There’s the search function, an audience-oriented scheme and a topical scheme. It takes time to get used to this layout, but once you’re familiar with it, you’ll be able to navigate around easily. It is one of those successful organisation schemes that works well with many people. However, users are normally not satisfied when Facebook decided to change it’s layout like the timeline or changing the notifications, messages and friend requests from the left to the right.


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  3. Widen
  4. Enterprise Content Management
  5. Martin Tulic
  6. The Chicago Manual of Style Online